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Common Financial Analysis Terms: Definitions and Explanations

personal loan interest comparison This article includes a compilation of definitions for common financial analysis terms about valuations, investments & financial strategies. Personal Loan Interest Comparison Financial analysis terms relate with formulas for proportions, yields & turnovers; hence understanding their meanings is necessary in interpreting the numbers.

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Financial analysis terms are typically about formulas for measuring yields, costs, and satisfaction. However, one needs to see the objectives and definitions of monetary analysis terms so that you can interpret the resulting figures, ratios, and numbers. Certain terminologies may also be related to accounting for equity, income, and costing analysis. In case you aren't able to find something here, please refer to our other publciations about accounting word meanings inside following separate articles:

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Accounts Receivable Turnover ' A method used by businesses for determining the efficiency by which their credit sales or accounts receivables are collected and become actual cash needed to support its operational activities.

Acid Test Ratioeval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'brighthub_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2'])); ' It is the measurement of the entity's liquidity by determining the proportion of their quick assets against maturing debts. The quick assets reference the money, marketable securities, accounts receivables and notes receivable, or those who can easily be converted into cash without taking a large amount time to be realized as such. This I also call the fast assets ratio.

Acid Test Ratio Formula -- The formula is: Total Current Assets ' Inventories / Current Liabilities


Days-to-Sell Inventory ' This refers back to the number of days it takes to dispose or sell goods according to inventory releases.

Debt-to-Networth Ratio ' The proportion coming from all outstanding obligations with the company from the net assets (assets-liabilities) in the company. It's an indication if the company has sufficient resources to pay off both creditors and stockholders inside the event that a firm is constrained to liquidate its resources. An unfavorable proportion denotes a precarious personal finances for stockholders, because they are the very last inside the order of hierarchy during liquidation proceedings.

Debt-to-Equity Ratio ' Since the basic accounting equation is Assets = Liabilities - Capital, financial analysis likewise measures their stability by calculating the proportion with the company's total indebtedness to its total capital structure. The resulting ratio derived will indicate when the company is operating mostly on borrowed funds as opposed to capital.

Differential Analysis ' This is an analysis from the variables between two financial figures wherein the aim is to use alternative courses of action to counter any negative inferences based on such variables.

Differential Cost ' This is utilized in some financial analyses, as bases for determining the results of export pricing costs in order to present the viability of different markups when deciding on the price level of a cool product.

Discounted Payback Period ' This analysis determines how long it will take to recoup one's investment at its present value. See Discounted Present Value.

Discounted Present Value ' This refers to the present importance of future money that is to be received inside the form of several installments after a given period.

Financial Accounting ' A specialization in the field of accounting which relates to the operation of measuring business performance based on the financial data reported as financial statements.

Financial Analysis ' A process of measuring or determining the viability of your business as a worthy investment vehicle by analyzing the numerical data presented within the financial statement reports. The objective is usually to determine the subject company's profitability, liquidity, and stability.

Financial Budget ' A financial plan presented in terms of financial statements, i.e. Income Statement and Balance Sheet, being a means to demonstrate how the approved budget for income and expenses will impact the net worth from the business when it comes to potential growth. See Pro Forma Statement.

Financial Forecast ' Financial statements that present projected income and expenses determined by percent of sales and analysis of regression using financial models. Management will use them as bases to the succeeding year's budget allocations and estimations for business borrowings, if they become necessary .

Find more financial analysis term & definitions continuing with F plus G, for the next page.

Financial Leverage ' This could be the measure of a business's power to operate continuously being a going concern even though it resorts to borrowing long-term funds. The measure is determined by dividing the business's total liabilities on the value of the company's stockholders' equity. This denotes that borrowings bring self-liquidating businesses and never affect their capital increase in in whatever way.

Financial Model ' This refers back to the mathematical equations accustomed to come up with representations how different economic situations or conditions will impact the organization. It may even be used like a tool for analyzing business decisions that entail committing funds to a investment or business undertaking.

Financial Projection ' See Financial Forecast

Financial Ratioeval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'brighthub_com-banner-1','ezslot_1'])); -- This is really a mathematical tool employed for determining proportions between two financial components. The numerical objective springs by dividing the financial statement balance of a single account in the balance of one other financial statement account.

Financial Ratio Analysis ' The interpretation of the financial ratio proportion, which depends on the analyst's objective when it comes to profitability, liquidity, or stability.

Financial Reporting ' The required financial statements submitted by business entities, for review or perusal by regulatory bodies, public investors, creditors, employees, and all sorts of others who could possibly have vested interests in a very business entity.

Financial Risk ' The connotation of risk means the possibilities of negative outcomes for a financial venture such as investments, or amount of money lent or any way of undertaking that yields are generally expected.

Fixed Asset Turnover -- This describes a stride of profitability by determining how effectively the fixed assets are now being employed to generate revenues for the company. This is dependant on dividing net sales (sales - discounts/refunds) over the price of fixed assets.

Fixed Asset Unit ' Refers to almost every item classified like a tangible asset capitalized as being a fixed asset cost. Examples include machinery, delivery equipment, business furniture, computers, and stuff like that.

Fixed Asset-to-Equity Capital Ratio -- The ratio is searched into by investors who're considering determining how much with the capital continues to be infused in fixed assets that are used for business operations. It indicates if management is harnessing capital funds on resources for the purpose in which the company operates and not on speculative investments.

Fixed Budget -- The predetermined plan that has been resolved as non-adjustable regardless of whether you'll find any deviations within the conditions that affect a business's capability to realize the income that has been projected.

Flotation Cost -- This is looked as the monetary considerations involved inside the issuance of an new security. This pertains not only to the administrative expenses paid in order for the new security to possess a physical presence within the capital market but also the yield that is to be paid to investors who will purchase the newly released investment product.

Gross Margin ' This means the difference between the selling price from the goods as well as the actual cost of the goods offered; to put it simply, it's the price mark-up quantified through the quantity of goods sold.

Gross Margin Pricing ' An approach to price level-calculation by adding mark-ups determined by a percentage with the product's sum total.

Gross Margin Ratio ' The measure of proportion relating to the remaining sales revenue or gross profit (Sales ' Cost of Goods Sold) towards the total sales revenues. A favorable proportion shows that items are selling at competitive mark-up prices.

Gross Price Method ' This is often a approach to determining selling price mark-up by basing the proportion for the invoiced amount with the tariff of goods sold, ignoring any cash discounts.

Gross Profit Margin ' The difference between your sales revenues along with the tariff of goods sold; as being a profit margin, this denotes the limit by which operating expenses have to be incurred to make sure profit realization.

Growth Rate ' This is the percentage where the outcome from the business operations have improved, achieved start by making a comparative analysis with the company's annual common-size financial statements. See Horizontal Analysis.

Financial analysis terms & definitions beginning with H-I-L-M are found on the next page.

Hedge Fund ' This is the term for an intricate kind of mutual fund, where high-minimum investment resources are pooled right into a single investment undertaking but are on a no more than 100 investors for each pool or fund. In addition, hedge funds are subject to fewer restrictions, that allows the hedge fund managers to put the pooled funds in aggressive varieties of investment strategies like short-selling, swaps, leverage-buyouts and arbitrage (simultaneous investing of securities in capital markets). This is usually available towards the more affluent investors in order to well-established institutions, considering that the minimum placement per hedge fund may vary from $250,000 to $1 million.

Horizontal Analysis ' This is often a way of comparative financial statement in which the measure of changes for at least 3 years are presented and expressed regarding percentage. Some horizontal analyses make use in the first year since the grounds for presenting the changes during the entire three-year period to denote growth, let's say from inception currently. Others, however, present changes from year to year; hence the base year used is the previous year as well as the growth or regression presented is produced by previous year towards the current year.

Hurdle Rate ' The rate of return through which an investment will yield profits as necessary data for any cash flow analysis.

Industry Standards - These are referred to as benchmarks since they represent the research into track records of performances among successful businesses of their respective industries. They provide the figures against which small business's financial data may be compared.

Inventory Turnover ' This financial ratio determines the quantity of times that a business's inventory is sold and restocked by dividing the complete sales over the average inventory. A high rate of turnover means efficiency in selling and restocking of merchandise. However, the outcome should be proportionate on the tariff of goods sold.

Investing Activities ' Refers to an organization's using capital funds by using purchasing and/or selling additional assets with potentials to yield profits as being a means to accomplish financial growth. Examples of capital fund investments include new machinery, new items, branching out, diversifying into new service lines, and marketable securities if your capital funds being invested are idle funds.

Leverage ' See Financial Leverage

Leveraged Buyout ' This can be a sort of high-end financing usually resorted to by companies, whose dependence on funds is actually for survival purposes. In such cases, a business agrees that will put up its assets as collateral for the substantial amount of the loan. However, others see this being a form of predatory lending since the borrowing company will likely be created to pay exorbitant quantities of interest, hence rendering it impossible for that distressed company to settle the borrowed funds Accordingly, the specific objective with the lending group is just not propose the distressed entity but to purchase out the business without having to assume its other debts or obligations, by simply foreclosing the assets.

Managed Earnings ' This is the term for a firm which the earnings and expenditures are manipulated as a means to project financial growth. Its management makes use of business projections as bases for financial presentation manipulations rather than because bases for budget allocations. Find a related article entitled A Detailed Look with the Enron Scandal about fraudulent manipulations that present a well used example of managed earnings.

Marginal Analysis ' A form of analysis that delves into the costs of alternative investment undertakings along with the benefits or yield that is to be produced by such costs by checking growth effect around the revenues and expenditures in the investing company. Investment decisions is going to be made based on the study with the factors that spur the financial growth and which factors hold the likeliest potential for bringing in marginal profits within an established safety level.

Margin of Safety -- This means the established safety level used for investment decisions based on marginal analysis. It comes from by calculating their breakeven point then extracting the figures from actual sales. The excess amount is considered as the margin of safety; and also the higher the surplus of actual sales against breakeven point, the larger the a higher level margin of safety presented.

More financial analysis terms & definitions continuing with M and also N are about the next page.

Marginal Cost ' This represents the cost associated with an investment undertaking wherein direct costs plus fixed operating expenses are actually viewed as the ones that could be absorbed on the break-even point. The marginal costs then are computed from break-even point level plus the variable costs.

Markdown ' A business strategy that entails the reduction of the product's price level to stimulate buying activities from customers and have more consumers.

Markup -- This represents the total amount added towards the invoice price from the goods purchased in order to produce the price level.

Market Value ' The price that willing buyers would pay for any commodity if put up for sale inside the market.

Money Market ' Refers to the capital market where securities such as shares of stocks, short-term debts, and bonds are traded. The money put in short-term debts is called money market placements.

Mutual Fund ' This may be the term accustomed to describe money that has become pooled by a smart investment company coming from several investors in order to build a good investment fund which has the ability to generate higher-yields through advantage of the substantiality of the amount. Any income earned from the mutual fund shall be distributed one of the investors according on the proportion of their monetary contribution for the pooled funds after deducting the fees with the investment company.

NASDAQ -- The acronym means National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System but has outlived madness of the foundations as a securities trading place while using the first electronic screen-based equity securities listing that is traded within the counter. It has evolved right into a licensed national exchange like a component in the capital market.

Negotiated Price ' This refers to the price mutually agreed upon by both seller and supplier after agreeing on certain problems that could possibly be demanded or rejected by any or each party, in which negotiations can sometimes include price reduction as a means to extract compliance or price increment like a condition that will compensate for the exclusion of your condition.

Negotiated Transfer Price ' This can be a form of managerial accounting in a business in which the treating costs and income are decentralized in each division. In this situation, each division is given the legal right to trade its supplies or services with other divisions in a negotiated transfer price, inasmuch as selling price won't apply and then there is no actual selling activity going on. This then enables each division to optimize its resources by generating internal profits that might enhance its financial performance from the organizational set-up.

Net Cash Inflow ' The excess amount from the actual cash received from business operations all things considered the mandatory operating expenses have been met. This analysis is often employed by an organization that resorts to fund borrowing which is into monitoring when the additional funds invested in a new project are generating enough cash to settle the related debt incurred.

New York Stock Exchange ' Considered the best stock market center for having evolved into NYSE Euronext. NYSE's merger with several major capital markets operating in Europe is most likely the largest blend of global resources to create essentially the most liquid global sell for stock exchanges.

Non-Controllable Risk 'The risk instigated by forces or influences from external sources which are beyond send out control. A psychological response to a product as being a response to a past negative incident is an example of non-controllable risk.

Non-Public Company ' A company that does not trade its shares of stock inside trading floors with the capital market.

Number of Days Inventory is Held ' Refers for the calculation from the average quantity of days that an item is held as inventory to be able to determine the ability cost incurred while in its inventory state. It follows that greater days a stock inventory is held available, the harder unfavorable its implications, since days will likely be converted into its equivalent opportunity cost or perhaps the revenue lost.

Find more definitions for financial analysis terms & definitions you start with O-P on the next page.

Opportunity Cost ' The yield associated with an investment alternative; or perhaps an chance to earn cash that is foregone by taking a different course of action or by picking out another alternative.

Open Market ' A trading condition when sellers and buyers exchange goods and services for monetary considerations determined by the impact of supply and demand; rather than a closed market where you can find restrictions to observe before selling real estate or buyer can actively participate.

Open Investment Company ' This is also known as Open-Ended Investment Company (OEIC) the location where the investors may pool their investment funds and set them in numerous kinds of investment securities. A shareholder who wishes to market his share inside the pooled funds will base his selling price on the value in the OEIC's net portfolio value per share. In the US, this kind of company is popularly known as open-ended mutual funds.

Penny Stock ' These are the shares of stocks that are traded on the counter through Over-the-Counter-Bulletin Boards and pink trading sheets. They do not participate inside the major capital market because of the relatively good deal, that may be lower than some money. Investments on small cap stocks are considered highly speculative because the business's capital funds are basically determined by investors' contributions.

Period of Redemption ' In financial investments, this refers back to the specific period or date on what the investor may collect the cost invested being a bond or technically collect a debt.

Price Index ' This is the short term for Consumer Price Index or even the weighted average from the consumer's costs or prices taken care of basic necessities, like food, medical care, rent, etc. The weight provided to their value is as outlined by their amount of importance, and any changes for individual items will likely be considered and a brand new weighted average is going to be computed. Based on this, the CPI is the price value used by computing the tariff of living in the given sector.

Prime Rate ' This means the interest rate extended from the bank to its prime borrowers or those who're considered credit-worthy. The latter usually are large corporations who're into self-liquidating ventures; hence the money confronted with lending risks is extended towards the prime borrower at lower rates. This can even be the default rate for small borrowers that have relatively a similar qualities because prime borrowers.

Pro Forma Statement ' A form of monetary statement used by business projections as an example earnings and growth potential when it comes to assets, liabilities, income, and expenses. Start-up companies should preferably use pro-forma statements so that you can have a very visual projection of the business plans and as being a medium for pinpointing other locations that could possibly be hampering their business's growth.

Prospecting ' In financial investments, a mention of prospecting is actually applied to junk bonds or securities that use a relatively high amount of risks though high-yields. Decisions for the securities to prospect on are generally made after careful analysis indicates that you can find greater probabilities how the investment will pay-off.

PS Ratio ' This will be the short term for Price to Sales Ratio, which could be the measure of a firm's performance that is certainly determined by your sales generated by the business ; hence the gains per share are according to the sales revenue instead from the net gain. This is according to the premise that a company will find it tougher to govern the gross sales figures which are clear of any deductions.

Find more financial analysis terms & definitions, continuing with P plus R-S for the next page.

Public Offering ' The act of presenting a firm's shares of stock along with other investment instruments for the capital market with the understanding the money being solicited is going to be utilized by the offering company for additional small business ventures or expansion projects which might be anticipated having high yields of return about the investors' placement.

Portfolio ' This is the entire assortment of investment instruments and undertakings associated with an organization, entity, or person who comprises diverse investment strategies like a means for limiting the potential risks being taken.

Preferred Shares of Stock ' A company's shares of stock to which the holders are shown the privilege of creating higher yields as well as having higher priority in terms of dividend payouts. Preferred shareholders will also be ahead in the order of hierachy for claiming rights to the company's assets if compared for the common stockholders

Ratio ' A measure with the relationship between two quantities usually derived being a quotient of the mathematical equation and interpreted since the direct proportion or size of 1 aspect to a different, however, not with all the intention to interpret the quotient as being a fractional part.

Sales Forecast ' This is generally construed as being a prediction of future sales according to the figures of historical performances how past sales were generated. In making forecasts, the analyst carefully considers the variables that contributed to their increases and decreases.

Security/Securities ' These are documents that be evidence of stakes or claim as part owner of your business corporation, in proportion for the variety of securities he holds. In addition, these documents are likewise proofs of entitlement to dividend payouts.

Self-Liquidating ' A project or venture is known as self-liquidating if it will yield funds that the company may use in doing its business activities, including the potential to pay off the funds borrowed to finance said projects. In such cases, the recovery with the amount invested is realized on the soonest time possible.

Short Sell ' To short sell in financial activities is to sell shares of stocks at a discounted as opposed to stocks are worth. They are securities that certain borrows coming from a stockholder's portfolio or that of one other investor. If the price of the stocks drops inside process, that'll be the chance to buy back the stocks. Buying back the short-sold stocks in an even lower price gives the speculator a high probability to profit. Once the stock's price rises above the amount of a single's short-selling strategy, he is able to then sell the stock but this time at a higher price as opposed to buy-back or short-sell price. The proceeds cover just how much which has to get returned on the broker whilst the difference is the short-seller's gain.

Sensitivity Analysis ' This is really a approach to analyzing the responses, reactions, and impact of variables should they occur under another pair of conditions.

Short-Term ' A business venture, undertaking, placement, or loan-out is said to get short-term if the period is perfect for one year or less.

More definitions for financial analysis terms & definitions continuing with S plus T-U-V are inside final page informed.

Simulation ' A simulation in financial analysis is an enterprise model structured by mathematical computations wherein the circumstances calculated will produce expected variables. The analyst runs a simulation by inputting different projected data in order to establish the results presented by each forecast. The results will serve as the analyst's cause of comparisons concerning the different levels of risk presented by each business projection or proposal.

Slack ' This term describes regression or slowing of the activities being analyzed.

Speculation ' This refers with an undertaking that doesn't present a comfortable level of safety and which requires greater attention to the analyses of the probabilities.

Spoilage ' This is the term for wastes, scraps, or perhaps the expense of errors that stem from mishandlings and so are not considered part in the standard's allowance for such.

Spreadsheet Analysis ' This means the usage of electronically generated worksheets or formats that contain rows and columns where data can be analyzed with expediency by imputing formulas in each relevant cell. The use from the formula functions will automatically generate strategies to mathematical calculations using a greater degree of accuracy.

Statistics ' The branch of mathematical science that deals with data collections, selection, analysis, and explanation for your numerical data calculated as a way to come up with presumptions or projections regarding probabilities.

Time Value of Money ' This refers to the calculation of how much present money will likely be worth by computing the yields it really is supposed to earn if used in a certain money placement or investment for the particular period. This might be derived by compounding the balances as...

Turnover Ratio ' This refers to the quantity of times that a particular component will undergo changes to suggest that the organization is having a positive span of direction in terms of profitable operations are worried.

Variance ' The state of being completely different from the typical or perhaps the norm; the latter's occurrence comes about under normal conditions with no influencing factors that could modify the pattern of their occurrences.

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Vertical Analysis ' This can be a kind of common-size financial statement presentation that shows a percentage analysis of each one account regarding the internet income. Personal Loan Interest Comparison Beginning in the Cash account in the Balance Sheet Statement and going vertically down to the Stockholders' Equity account, the respective balances are divided with the base amount to be able to derive their proportion to the world wide web income generated.